This vignette explains the purpose and usage of:

The target audience is someone writing an R package to wrap a Google API.

library(gargle)

Why use gargle’s request helpers?

Why would the developer of a Google-API-wrapping package care about the request helpers in gargle?

You can write less code and safer code, in return for a modest investment in studying your target API. That is done by ingesting the API’s so-called Discovery Document.

Hundreds of Google APIs – the ones addressed by the API Discovery Service – share a great deal of behaviour. By ingesting the metadata provided by this service, you can use gargle’s request helpers to exploit this shared data and logic, while also decreasing the chance that you and your users will submit ill-formed requests.

The request helpers in gargle check the combined inputs from user and developer against suitably prepared API metadata:

  • If required parameters are missing, an error is thrown.
  • If unrecognized parameters are submitted, an error is thrown.
  • Parameters are automatically placed in their correct location: URL substitution, query, or body.
  • Is there something else you care about? It is possible to do more, but it would help to have concrete requests.

Google provides API libraries for several languages, including Java, Go, Python, JavaScript, Ruby and more (but not R). All of these libraries are machine-generated from the metadata provided by the API Discovery Service. It is the official recommendation to use the Discovery Document when building client libraries. The gargle package aims to implement key parts of this strategy, in a way that is also idiomatic for R and its developers.

High-level design pattern

gargle facilitates this design for API-wrapping packages:

  • A machine-assisted low-level interface driven by the Discovery Document:
    • Your package exports thin wrapper functions around gargle’s helpers to form and make HTTP requests, that inject package-specific logic and data, such as an API key and user agent. This is for power users and yourself.
  • High-level, task-oriented, user-facing functions that constitute the main interface of your package.
    • These functions convert user input into the form required by the API and pass it along to your low-level interface functions.

Later, specific examples are given, using the googledrive package.

gargle’s HTTP request helpers

gargle provides support for creating and sending HTTP requests via these functions:

request_develop(endpoint, params, base_url): a.k.a. The Smart One.

  • Processes the info in params relative to detailed knowledge about the endpoint, derived from an API Discovery Document.
  • Checks for required and unrecognized parameters.
  • Peels off params destined for the body into their own part.
  • Returns request data in a form that anticipates the httr::VERB() call that is on the horizon.

request_build(method, path, params, body, token, key, base_url): a.k.a. The Dumb One.

  • Typically consumes the output of request_develop(), although that is not required. It can be called directly to enjoy a few luxuries even when making one-off API calls in the absence of an ingested Discovery Document.
  • Integrates params into a URL via substitution and the query string.
  • Sends either an API key or an OAuth token, but it provides no default values or logic for either.

request_make(x, ..., user_agent): actually makes the HTTP request.

  • Typically consumes the output of request_build(), although that is not required. However, if you have enough info to form a request_make() request, you would probably just make the httr::VERB() call yourself.
  • Consults x$method to determine which httr::VERB() to call, then calls it with the rest of x, ..., and user_agent passed as arguments.

They are usually called in the above order, though they don’t have to be used that way. It is also fine to ignore this part of gargle and use it only for help with auth. They are separate parts of the package.

Discovery Documents

Google’s API Discovery Service “provides a lightweight, JSON-based API that exposes machine-readable metadata about Google APIs”. We recommend ingesting this metadata into an R list, stored as internal data in an API-wrapping client package. Then, HTTP requests inside high-level functions can be made concisely and safely, by referring to this metadata. The combined use of this data structure and gargle’s request helpers can eliminate a lot of boilerplate data and logic that are shared across Google APIs and across endpoints within an API.

The gargle package ships with some functions and scripts to facilitate the ingest of a Discovery Document. You can find these files in the gargle installation like so:

Main files of interest to the developer of a client package:

  • ingest-functions.R is a collection of functions for downloading and ingesting a Discovery Document.
  • drive-example.R uses those functions to ingest metadata on the Drive v3 API and store it as an internal data object for use in googledrive.

The remaining files present an analysis of the Discovery Document for the Discovery API itself (very meta!) and write files that are useful for reference. Several are included at the end of this vignette.

Why aren’t the ingest functions exported by gargle? First, we regard this as functionality that is needed at development time, not install or run time. This is something you’ll do every few months, probably associated with preparing a release of a wrapper package. Second, the packages that are useful for wrangling JSON and lists are not existing dependencies of gargle, so putting these function in gargle would require some unappealing compromises.

Method (or endpoint) data

Our Discovery Document ingest process leaves you with an R list. Let’s assume it’s available in your package’s namespace as an internal object named .endpoints. Each item represents one method of the API (Google’s vocabulary) or an endpoint (gargle’s vocabulary).

Each endpoint has an id. These ids are also used as names for the list. Examples of some ids from the Drive and Sheets APIs:

drive.about.get
drive.files.create
drive.teamdrives.list
sheets.spreadsheets.create
sheets.spreadsheets.values.clear
sheets.spreadsheets.sheets.copyTo

Retrieve the metadata for one endpoint by name, e.g.:

That info can be passed along to request_develop(endpoint, params, base_url), which conducts sanity checks and combines this external knowledge with the data coming from the user and developer via params.

Design suggestion: forming requests

Here’s the model used in googledrive. There is a low-level request helper, googledrive::request_generate(), that is used to form every request in the package. It is exported as part of a low-level API for expert use, but most users will never know it exists.

The endpoint argument specifies an endpoint by its name, a.k.a. its id.

params is where the processed user input goes.

key and token refer to an API key and OAuth2 token, respectively. Both can be populated by default, but it is possible to pass them explicitly. If your package ships with a default API key, you should append it above as the final fallback value for params$key.

Do not “borrow” an API key from gargle or another package; always send a key associated with your package or provided by your user. Per the Google User Data Policy https://developers.google.com/terms/api-services-user-data-policy, your application must accurately represent itself when authenticating to Google API services.

After googledrive::request_generate() takes care of everything specific to the Drive API and the user’s input and task, we call gargle::request_develop(). We finish preparing the request with gargle::request_build(), which enforces the rule that we always send exactly one of key and token.

Design suggestion: making requests

The output of gargle::request_build() specifies an HTTP request.

gargle::request_make() can be used to actually execute it.

request_make() consults x$method to identify the httr::VERB() and then calls it with the remainder of x, ... and the user_agent.

In googledrive we have a thin wrapper around this that injects the googledrive user agent:

Reference

derived from the Discovery Document for the Discovery Service

Properties of an endpoint

description             string  Description of this method.
etagRequired            boolean Whether this method requires an ETag to be
                                specified. The ETag is sent as an HTTP If-
                                Match or If-None-Match header.
httpMethod              string  HTTP method used by this method.
id                      string  A unique ID for this method. This property
                                can be used to match methods between
                                different versions of Discovery.
mediaUpload             object  Media upload parameters.
parameterOrder          array   Ordered list of required parameters, serves
                                as a hint to clients on how to structure
                                their method signatures. The array is ordered
                                such that the "most-significant" parameter
                                appears first.
parameters              object  Details for all parameters in this method.
path                    string  The URI path of this REST method. Should
                                be used in conjunction with the basePath
                                property at the api-level.
request                 object  The schema for the request.
response                object  The schema for the response.
scopes                  array   OAuth 2.0 scopes applicable to this method.
supportsMediaDownload   boolean Whether this method supports media downloads.
supportsMediaUpload     boolean Whether this method supports media uploads.
supportsSubscription    boolean Whether this method supports subscriptions.
useMediaDownloadService boolean Indicates that downloads from this method
                                should use the download service URL (i.e.
                                "/download"). Only applies if the method
                                supports media download.

API-wide endpoint parameters (taken from Discovery API but, empirically, are shared with other APIs):

alt         string  Data format for the response.
fields      string  Selector specifying which fields to include
                    in a partial response.
key         string  API key. Your API key identifies your project
                    and provides you with API access, quota, and
                    reports. Required unless you provide an OAuth
                    2.0 token.
oauth_token string  OAuth 2.0 token for the current user.
prettyPrint boolean Returns response with indentations and line
                    breaks.
quotaUser   string  An opaque string that represents a user
                    for quota purposes. Must not exceed 40
                    characters.
userIp      string  Deprecated. Please use quotaUser instead.

Properties of an endpoint parameters:

$ref                 string  A reference to another schema. The value of
                             this property is the "id" of another schema.
additionalProperties NULL    If this is a schema for an object, this
                             property is the schema for any additional
                             properties with dynamic keys on this object.
annotations          object  Additional information about this property.
default              string  The default value of this property (if one
                             exists).
description          string  A description of this object.
enum                 array   Values this parameter may take (if it is an
                             enum).
enumDescriptions     array   The descriptions for the enums. Each position
                             maps to the corresponding value in the "enum"
                             array.
format               string  An additional regular expression or key that
                             helps constrain the value. For more details
                             see: http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-zyp-
                             json-schema-03#section-5.23
id                   string  Unique identifier for this schema.
items                NULL    If this is a schema for an array, this
                             property is the schema for each element in
                             the array.
location             string  Whether this parameter goes in the query or
                             the path for REST requests.
maximum              string  The maximum value of this parameter.
minimum              string  The minimum value of this parameter.
pattern              string  The regular expression this parameter must
                             conform to. Uses Java 6 regex format: http://
                             docs.oracle.com/javase/6/docs/api/java/util/
                             regex/Pattern.html
properties           object  If this is a schema for an object, list the
                             schema for each property of this object.
readOnly             boolean The value is read-only, generated by the
                             service. The value cannot be modified by the
                             client. If the value is included in a POST,
                             PUT, or PATCH request, it is ignored by the
                             service.
repeated             boolean Whether this parameter may appear multiple
                             times.
required             boolean Whether the parameter is required.
type                 string  The value type for this schema. A list
                             of values can be found here: http://
                             tools.ietf.org/html/draft-zyp-json-
                             schema-03#section-5.1
variant              object  In a variant data type, the value of
                             one property is used to determine how to
                             interpret the entire entity. Its value must
                             exist in a map of descriminant values to
                             schema names.