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Consults the token cache for a suitable OAuth token and, if unsuccessful, gets a token via the browser flow. A cached token is suitable if it's compatible with the user's request in this sense:

  • OAuth client must be same.

  • Scopes must be same.

  • Email, if provided, must be same. If specified email is a glob pattern like "*", email matching is done at the domain level.

gargle is very conservative about using OAuth tokens discovered in the user's cache and will generally seek interactive confirmation. Therefore, in a non-interactive setting, it's important to explicitly specify the "email" of the target account or to explicitly authorize automatic discovery. See gargle2.0_token(), which this function wraps, for more. Non-interactive use also suggests it might be time to use a service account token or workload identity federation.


  scopes = NULL,
  app = gargle_client(),
  package = "gargle",



A character vector of scopes to request. Pick from those listed at

For certain token flows, the "" scope is unconditionally included. This grants permission to retrieve the email address associated with a token; gargle uses this to index cached OAuth tokens. This grants no permission to view or send email and is generally considered a low-value scope.


A Google OAuth client, preferably constructed via gargle_oauth_client_from_json(), which returns an instance of gargle_oauth_client. For backwards compatibility, for a limited time, gargle will still accept an "OAuth app" created with httr::oauth_app().


Name of the package requesting a token. Used in messages.


Arguments passed on to gargle2.0_token


Optional. Allows user to target a specific Google identity. If specified, this is used for token lookup, i.e. to determine if a suitable token is already available in the cache. If no such token is found, email is used to pre-select the targetted Google identity in the OAuth chooser. Note, however, that the email associated with a token when it's cached is always determined from the token itself, never from this argument. Use NA or FALSE to match nothing and force the OAuth dance in the browser. Use TRUE to allow email auto-discovery, if exactly one matching token is found in the cache. Specify just the domain with a glob pattern, e.g. "*", to create code that "just works" for both and Defaults to the option named "gargle_oauth_email", retrieved by gargle_oauth_email().


Whether to prefer out-of-band authentication. Defaults to the value returned by gargle_oob_default().


Specifies the OAuth token cache. Defaults to the option named "gargle_oauth_cache", retrieved via gargle_oauth_cache().


Advanced use only: allows you to completely customise token generation.


A Gargle2.0 token.


if (FALSE) {
# Drive scope, built-in gargle demo client
scopes <- ""
credentials_user_oauth2(scopes, app = gargle_client())

# bring your own client
client <- gargle_oauth_client_from_json(
  path = "/path/to/the/JSON/you/downloaded/from/gcp/console.json",
  name = "my-nifty-oauth-client"
credentials_user_oauth2(scopes, client)